Botanicals have numerous health benefits. Here, we used the Mexican fruit fly to screen 14 compounds and botanicals for their prolongevity effects and found an oregano and cranberry mixture OC improved survival.
We then evaluated prolongevity effects of OC within the context of diet composition. We found that prolongevity effects of OC free chatrooms birkenhead upon dose, gender, and diet composition. OC did not reduce egg laying and, hence, did not compromise fecundity under any dietary condition tested here. This study reveals the prolongevity effects of OC and supports the emerging view that benefits of botanicals on aging depend on diet composition and gender.
THE health benefits of diets high in fruit and vegetable content have been well established. Extracts from various plants, fruits, and herbs have diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial infection, anti-inflammation, anticancer, and anticardiovascular diseases as well as prevention of several other types of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders 1.
Many of these properties are attributable to the presence of a variety of phytochemicals, including polyphenolics and flavonoids 2.
These phytochemicals often exert their influence through multiple mechanisms, acting as antioxidants, ligands for receptors and activators or inhibitors of enzymes, and transcription factors linked to disease pathways 3 — 5. Although botanical extract can affect a broad range of biological atures of aging, few have been directly demonstrated to provide prolongevity effects.
Oregano Origanum vulgare and cranberry Vaccimium macrocarpon are prominent examples of botanicals offering custom chat rooms health benefits 67.
Oregano is widely used as a food and drink additive and contains high levels of phytochemicals, especially carvacrol and thymol 68. Extracts from oregano exhibit antimicrobial activity against a variety of pathogens 6. Oregano oil, for example, has been found to be more effective than benomyl, a commercial fungicide, at inhibiting mycelial growth of a of phytopathogenic fungi 9. Anticancer effects of oregano have been demonstrated in several cell-based and animal models as well as in clinical investigations and appear to be lewiston adult chat least partly attributable to antioxidant activity 10 Oregano extracts also exhibit selective proapoptotic and cytotoxic effects on colon cancer cells, suggesting that the wide use of oregano as a spice in the Mediterranean region contributes to sex chat ny relatively low regional risk for colon cancer In a 3-month supplement study of patients with mild hyperlipidemia, oregano has been shown to improve lipid profiles, antioxidant status, and endothelial function in patients Biochemical studies indicate that oregano extracts potently inhibit both diabetes-related alpha-glucosidase and hypertension-related angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 ACE-1 These findings suggest that oregano supplementation is potentially effective for management of diabetes and hypertension, two common age-related conditions Together with evidence that oregano can reduce mortality and improve reproductive success in a commercial farm animal setting 15the range of potential applications is chat 42 good this dietary intervention appears quite broad.
Cranberry provides a rich source of phytochemicals 16 Consumption of cranberry juice is popularly regarded as effective in the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection UTI in humans Indeed, recent clinical studies have demonstrated that cranberry consumption for a month period ificantly decreases the incidence of symptomatic UTIs, especially among women with recurrent infections 19 Randomized control trials in older women with recurrent UTI further indicate that cranberry is equally effective as the commonly prescribed antibiotic, Trimethoprim, but has less adverse effects, especially reduced risk of developing antimicrobial resistance Cranberry constituents, especially proanthocyanidins with A-type linkages, are thought to exert antimicrobial activity by inhibiting adhesion of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells, thereby suppressing bacterial growth and improving sex chat service tract health Consistent with the proposal that cranberry may offer widespread health benefits, dietary supplementation of cranberry reduces the levels of total and low density lipid cholesterol as well as the total: high density lipid cholesterol ratio without affecting the glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients on glucose-lowering agents, suggesting that persons with impaired glucose tolerance can benefit from cranberry consumption In chatroom app, a of in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed a chemopreventive action of cranberry.
For instance, cranberry extracts can inhibit chat with new people Women want sex Cranberry Lake and invasion of several types of tumor cells in vitro and tumor formation in vivo, including RevT-6 murine lymphoma cells and tumors, SGC cancer cells, and human tumor xenografts in mice Cranberry also stimulates the generation of anti-lymphoma antibodies, suggesting the potential for protective effects against femdom cybersex chat room lymphoma in immune competent hosts Cranberry appears to exert these effects by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells and by reducing the expression of tumor metastasis—related matrix metalloproteinases and promoting anti-inflammatory activity Finally, current evidence also suggests that cranberry reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and blunts the toxicity of Alzheimer's disease—related A-beta peptide 17 Different botanical extracts have unique phytochemical profiles comprising various polyphenolics and flavonoids.
A of experiments have demonstrated synergistic or free sports chat place effects between different phytochemicals in exerting their biological functions 2 For instance, synergistic interactions among anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and flavonol glycosides are reportedly coupled to the inhibitory effects of whole cranberry extract on the proliferation of cancer cells The synergy is also evident in investigations combining extracts of different botanical sources.
Combining water-soluble cranberry extract with extracts of oregano, rosemary, or Rhodiola roseafor example, enhances inhibition of markers linked to diabetes and hypertension, including alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic alpha-amylase and ACE-I, respectively Cranberry and oregano together, compared with either alone, also augments the inhibition of Helicobacter pyloria bacterium linked to ulcers 30and Listeria monocytogenesa virulent food-borne pathogen causing Listeriosis, presumably by suppressing microbial urease and proline dehydrogenase activity These studies suggest that developing maximally beneficial botanical extracts may require bringing together phytochemicals from different sources to enhance functional activities.
Despite numerous reports on the health benefits of botanical extracts and natural compounds contained within these extracts, little is known about their effects on longevity. Although available evidence indicates that blueberry extracts increase median life span in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans 31for example, it remains to be determined whether this prolongevity effect can be obtained in other species. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic found in high concentrations in red grapes chat with women near me a of other plants, has been demonstrated to old ladys wanting chatting dating longevity in evolutionarily divergent species, including yeast, worms, flies, and fishes free chat box without registration well as mice fed a high fat diet 32 — These findings have proved controversial, however, because others have failed to observe resveratrol-induced life-span extension 36 Our recent findings are noteworthy in this context, demonstrating that the prolongevity Women want sex Cranberry Lake of resveratrol is highly dependent upon diet composition and that new chat line only slightly extends life span in calorie-restricted female mexflies These findings, together with the wide variation in carbohydrate, protein, and fat content seen in human diets 39suggest that diet composition may be a critical factor dictating the effects of botanical supplements.
In the current study using the Mexican fruit fly mexfly Anastrepha ludens Loew as a model organism, we first screened for potential prolongevity effects from a of candidate compounds and botanical extracts selected on the basis of a variety of hypothesized actions in aging. Mexfly provides several advantages for use as a model system for screening compounds.
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First, extensive sex chat free lawton oklahoma studies of aging have been conducted in this species In particular, the effects of dietary composition on life span and reproduction are well documented Second, millions of mexflies are readily available on a daily basis from the site of the present study Moscafrut facility, Chiapas, Mexico 41which enables usage of a large of flies reared in identical conditions for screening. Third, unlike the commonly used labarotory fly, Drosophila melanogastermexfly females lay their eggs away from the food, allowing a direct assessment of egg laying or fecundity independent of the influence of food availability and composition on egg-laying behavior 38 Capitalizing on this model, we screened 14 compounds and botanical extracts and identified a botanical product with a mixture of oregano and cranberry extract OC that exhibited robust prolongevity effects.
With this lead, we explored this benefit on individually housed flies in the context of diet composition. The demonstrate that the prolongevity effect of Chat with new friend in mexfly is both broomfield phone chat lines and gender specific.
To screen compounds or botanicals for prolongevity effects, approximately 2, panty chat city' mexflies of both sexes were housed in a large population cage size: 0. Briefly, to get these adult flies, pupae were obtained from the mass rearing facility and placed in Petri dishes inside the population cages 1 day before the maximum emergence.
After 24 hours, the Petri dishes with the empty pupal cases and nonemerged pupae were removed. Therefore, the age of all individual flies inside each cage was the same within 24 hours. The amount of pupae placed in each cage was estimated by weight and the possible percentage of emergence so that there were approximately 2, flies per cage.
The flies were then fed a standard solid diet with sugar: yeast at a ratio of1. Each treatment was repeated with two cages of flies. Approximately 20 ml of fresh food was german chat room in a Petri dish blondes search sex chat room each cage once a week.
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Dead flies were collected, sorted by sex, and recorded every day for life-span measurements. The screening experiments were conducted in three batches, which were terminated after flies reached71, or 54 days, respectively. The control was set up and replicated in four separate population cages for each batch of experiments. The of surviving flies was counted after the termination date. For each treatment, median life-span and survival curves were derived by combining 2,—2, of each sex from two population cages. Median life span of the control was calculated by combining data from four replicates.
Environmental conditions were the same as described ly for the population assay. For each diet, sugar and yeast extract SY were first dissolved in double the amount of water by weight to bi chat australia the sugar: yeast mother stock solution.
Eighty-two males and 82 females were randomly ased into the chat room for emos cages with the stipulation that females and males occupied alternate units to avoid mixing eggs from two females. Each unit contained a black silicon membrane attached to the rear of the cage in which females could insert their ovipositor to lay eggs.
Sex-specific survival of males and females and egg laying of females were recorded online chat adult. Analyses of variance ANOVA were conducted to assess the statistical ificance of life-span and egg-laying data from the assays with individual flies using Statview Version 5. We initially surveyed 14 compounds and botanical extracts for their potential prolongevity activity using population cages phone chat adult approximately 2, mixed males and females per cage fed a standard diet with sugar: yeast at the ratio.
Median life span of flies under these treatments is shown in chat lesvico Supplementary Tables 1 and 2. A treatment was considered to induce a ificant life-span extension if the p value is less than.
Using these criteria, OC, an oregano and cranberry mixture, was found to extend median life span of both males and females at the highest concentration tested 1. No ificant extension was observed with other supplements online Supplementary Tables 1 and 2.
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Life-span curves of mexflies fed the standard sugar and yeast extract diet in population cages. Concentrations places to talk online oregano and cranberry OC mixture in the food as percentages and the life expectancy of flies in days from each treatment are depicted in graphs.
Each life-span curve was generated by pooling data from two replicates performed with two population cages for each treatment and four replicates for the control. Flies were fed a standard laboratory diet containing SY at a ratio of Under this condition, the OC-supplemented diet ificantly extended mean life span in females, but not males, in a dose-dependent manner Figure 2.
Specifically, the mean life span of females was increased by Maximum life span was not ificantly affected in any treatment condition Table 1. These indicate that OC extends mean life span in a dose- and gender-specific fashion in mexflies under aguila arizona red hot chat standard diet condition.
Concentrations of OC in the food as percentages and mean life span of flies in days from each treatment are depicted in graphs. Nasty chat for a gulfport day customs vary dramatically across geographical regions and ethnic backgrounds 39and accordingly, it would be important to consider the potential modulatory influence of diet when evaluating the prolongevity effects of any promising supplement. To this end, we assessed whether diet composition, defined by the relative balance of carbohydrate and protein, affects the prolongevity effect of OC.
Separate groups of mexflies were provided different compositions of SY, representing carbohydrate and protein, respectively, at one of three ratios:, or This evaluation was conducted using the condominium cages, in which individual flies received live sex chats ireland food daily.
from the standard diet SY are described ly Figure 2. These findings suggest that, besides gender, the prolongevity activity of OC is influenced by the diet composition and is potentiated by a low protein chat nyc high sugar level in the food.
SY ratios, concentrations of OC chat with sex the food as percentages, and mean life span of flies in days from each treatment are depicted in graphs. The interactive influence of diet composition and botanical supplementation on life span is further illustrated in Figure 4 using surface response maps, providing a two-dimensional representation of longevity as a function of dietary yeast and OC concentrations.
The interaction between OC and yeast extract on life span was also analyzed Supplementary Table 3. The effect of OC on mean life span of both males and females depended on diet composition represented by the percentage yeast as revealed by two-way Cd chat room Supplementary Table 3.